Guide The Elizabethans

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The Golden Hind , the ship of perhaps some tons in which he accomplished it, was laid up at Deptford, and was one of the regular sights of London until she fell apart. It is pleasant to think that out of her timbers were made a chair that now reposes in the Bodleian Library and a table that stands in Middle Temple Hall. In addition to the riches she brought back in her hold for the Queen—nearly half a million in specie—Drake came back with an immense amount of new information about the wonders of the world, about America, the Pacific, the possibilities opening up for the English in the Far East.

No wonder the Queen was closeted alone with him for hours, day after day, on his return. He presented to her the logbook of the Golden Hind , the daily record of that marvelous journey during the three years — What would we not give to possess it today—treasure-trove of the age we would value more than anything, except, say, the letters of Shakespeare? What we do know now is that to the Queen alone belonged the decision to set forth that voyage—against the wishes of her lord treasurer, Lord Burghley. The voyage worked out far more successfully than anyone could have expected—except perhaps Drake himself, always a sanguine, confident man; but in some respects it worked out differently.

I do not think we need take so seriously the loss of the draft for the voyage, for I suspect that a good deal of room was left for flexibility, in the English manner. And certainly several objectives came together in it. Grenville had pointed out, perhaps disingenuously, that it would merely pass by those countries already occupied by Christian princes.

Anyhow, under the influence of a temporary lull in relations with Spain, the Queen countermanded his voyage.

Elizabethans

What she would not permit to Grenville as a private venture, she permitted three years later to Drake as a quasi-official one, with herself as the dominant partner. In fact, what we know now from English and Spanish sources all hangs together. There was indeed some secret between the Queen and Drake which has never transpired; some think it relates to the idea of a descent on the Isthmus of Darien and cutting the pipeline of Spanish treasure there. Likely enough: it was an idea that came to the fore in these years. In the preliminary discussions that were kept very secret—on the voyage out, no one knew where they were bound for—the objectives were greatly extended, and its destination was to be the Moluccas.


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There was included an idea of looking for the Pacific end of the Northwest Passage, the supposed Strait of Anian which should debouch somewhere about the coast of British Columbia. It became an official affair, sponsored by the Queen and the forward party in her council, Lord Burghley sitting back and absenting himself, well aware of what it boded. As such, its intentions could be kept secret—as to some extent they have remained. The Queen contributed her ship, the Swallow , which represented her investment. And so Drake left Plymouth Sound one December day in , bound for the other side of the world.

His colleague John Winter in the Elizabeth was beaten back in the Strait of Magellan and forced by his crew to turn home again. While there he did take possession of Tierra del Fuego in the name of Queen Elizabeth; I leave that consideration to the international lawyers in the dispute that is still maintained over the Falkland Islands. Drake was left to go forward on his own. He made a feint to the west to look out for the coast of Terra Australis; then went up the coast of South America, off which he captured the treasure ship Cacafuego , then sailed north to California, where he landed and took possession in the name of the Queen.

The various accounts all agree about what happened. Drake took.

Drake proceeded north along the coast of Oregon until he came abreast of British Columbia, looking for the outlet of a northwest passage. Meanwhile the Queen at home had to face the music.

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When Winter came back in the summer of , he was received with favor by the Queen, and was closeted alone with her to give her an account of the voyage. Drake was expected home after two years—he was a year overdue before he eventually returned, and the Queen was growing anxious for news. She also wanted to know the purpose of the preparations in Spanish ports. Philip was on the eve of his conquest of Portugal, by which he gained an oceangoing fleet and added a second empire to his own.

The situation was growing very dangerous: England was coming face to face with a world empire, the balance of power quite thrown out with France paralyzed by civil war. Elizabeth wanted to find out where she stood. In January, , she invited Mendoza to a bearbaiting that had been laid on for her.

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Elizabethan era - Wikipedia

Several times Mendoza demanded another audience. Mendoza replied that it was she apparently who was going to war with all the world. She had done her best for the tranquillity of the Netherlands and to prevent France from getting a footing there. Mendoza complained of the plundering of Spanish ships, especially on the American treasure route. The Queen immediately seized on this to ask if there was news of any such ships returned.

Mendoza was only able to inform her No—but he was sure they were being dealt with as they deserved by being sent to the bottom. He never understood that here was one who the more amiable was the more dangerous and was not to be frightened. His return presented a very awkward problem for the government; but the spontaneous reaction in the country to his astonishing exploit, the pride in his achievement, his nationwide popularity, and behind all this the support of the Queen, settled the matter.

She received him in high favor, saw him much alone, walked with him often in the palace garden, always noticed him in public. It was expected that she would knight him when she went down to Deptford to visit the Golden Hind. And so she did, contriving to lose a purple garter in the proceedings to heighten good spirits, and handing the French ambassador the sword by way of associating France a little in the event. The popular idea is that Drake got all the treasure. On the contrary, the bullion all came to the Queen, who put it safely in the Tower: she used it judiciously to keep resistance to Philip going in the Netherlands, so that he could never concentrate all his resources against England.

She decreed that the other shareholders should receive as much again as they had invested: a good per cent. William Camden had access to the official papers and reports it thus:. The Spaniards have brought these evils on themselves by their injustice towards the English, whom, contra ius gentium , they have excluded from commerce with the West Indies [that is, America]. The Queen does not acknowledge that her subjects and those of other nations may be excluded from the Indies on the claim that these have been donated to the King of Spain by the Pope, whose authority to invest the King of Spain with the New World she does not recognize … This donation of what does not belong to the donor and this imaginary right of property ought not to prevent other princes from carrying on commerce in those regions or establishing colonies there in places not inhabited by the Spaniards.

Prescription without possession is not valid.

Moreover all are at liberty to navigate that vast ocean [the Pacific], since the use of the sea and air are common to all. Elizabethan Theatre. Elizabethan Sports. Elizabethan Music. Elizabethan Food. Old Elizabethan Recipes. The Age of Exploration. The Spanish Armada. Elizabethan Era. Elizabeth Ist Queen of England. The people of the era - the Famous Figures who featured in the history of this era such as the Queen's love Robert Dudley, the sinister Dr.

The Biography and Timeline of Queen Elizabeth covers her family, her childhood, the scandals and danger that surrounded her as a young Princess and her succession to the throne of England and the commencement of the Elizabethan era. The court, her favorites and the dangerous politics of the Elizabethan era.

Elizabethan Times. Famous Elizabethans. Elizabethan Times and Famous Elizabethans The section and era covering Elizabethan Times provides the History, Facts and Information about the life and times of the famous people who lived during the Elizabethan Era. The Famous Elizabethan Women of the era and the famous men.

It also provides facts and information about Elizabethan architecture including the Elizabethan mansions, houses and the theatre. The life of men and women during the Elizabethan era - occupations, entertainment, customs, weddings, marriages and Family life. The Doctors, Medicines, Cures and Illnesses which were endured by the people who lived during the Elizabethan era. The next debater in line can tag in after the current speaker has had at least one minute to make their point. If a speaker needs support, they can return to the back of the line and the next person on their team can begin defending their perspective.

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